Biography GranoMetry 

1972 - now Granometry

GranoMetry: it financed my research by selling my Sand Sedimentation Analyzer, Sand Sedimentation Separator and by my analyzing services 

Sources of my ideas and inventions

Rumpf P1Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans Rumpf (photo on the left), Institut für Mechanische filsinger2cVerfahrenstechnik at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany, initiated my most important research 1968 – 1971 — my postdoctoral project. I enjoyed his smart ideas very much. 

Then I continued self-employed near Heidelberg. That was introduced by the assistance of Mr. Werner Filsinger (photo on the right). I appreciate the help of both wise men. 


Zahradnicek ales 1971 cfloegell ekkehard 1 cDuring my research at Karlsruhe, I acknowledge the constructional assistance of the head of the construction department and of my colleague Dr.-Ing. Aleš Zahradníček (1971-photo on the left).  

Very important help in electronics and computer applications provided me Ing. Ekkehard Flögel (photo on the right), Institute of Mechanical Vibrations, Karlsruhe. 


Frerk 2000 157 c

After 1974, when moved to Heidelberg area, frerkI especially appreciate the valuable cooperation with Dr.-Ing. Frerk Rosenbrock (originally from the University Darmstadt; photo on the left): he was the soul of the controlling electronics and real-time software of my Analyzer™ and Separator™. Frerk introduced me into the use of computers - having started with minicomputers by Varian, HP (Hewlett-Packard), CAI (Computer Automation Inc.), DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation), later to ELTEC computers and PCs, Personal Computers. He wrote the controlling software in company-specific Assemblers, so it had always to be rewritten. Therefore, he wrote the latest software for PCs in C language with embedded real-time subroutines in Assembler. Later, after the year 2004, Frerk purchased his dream - small airplane (the photos upper right) crowded with the latest technology such as several navigation systems, and is flying through Europe similarly as "normal" people go walking around the corner. 

In the years 1986 - 1988, OBLUKWb 2000 cViktor Nendel br2000 2 cdeveloped the data processing programs for the Analyzer™ using the graphic environment GEM, by Digital Research Inc.

After 1990, opening of the Iron Curtain, I could cooperate with Czechoslovakian experts. The programs were extended and perfectionized by two programmers from Brno, Czechoslovakia: Ing. Karel Obluk (the photo on the left), the distribution processing SedVar™ and Ing. Petr Odehnal (the photo on the right), the single number processing GRMProc™. 

Heck Gerd cIn the construction of both the Analyzer™ and the Separator™, Polzer 154Ing. Gerhard Heck (photo on the left) provided creative suggestions. E. g., Gerd designed the eccentric rotation of the Venetian Blind lamellae, which enabled complete sample removal and dispersion from the sample introduction device, and the rotational design of the Underwater Balance main body. Alfred Polzer (photo on the right) has been perfectly producing both instruments in his factory.

In the year 1973, during the period of a few months, I rented and made habitable two rooms in a nearby abandoned kaoline quarry team-house. The house had solid 0.6 meter thick brick walls and a 3.5 meter high ceiling. I installed oil heating from the one of the both rooms with a 2000 liter oil reservoir. In the main room, I installed shelves, another small floor, suspended a glass tube with inner diameter 20 cm providing 180 cm sedimentation distance (from the sample introduction device up to the top of the underwater balance pan) on steel-leaf springs with a long displacement and frictional damping to isolate the sensitive underwater electronic balance from environmental vibrations. 

The underwater balance used my patented steel-spring arrangement, which eliminated distortion from asymmetric load. The springs were very hard, so that the balance was tolerant to inappropriate operation. But the measured displacement resolution was on the physical limits of white noice (this is why I used measuring 1000x per second, and integrated the measured data over a variable interval). The displacement was sensed by a differential transformer hooked on  the measuring carrier frequency amplifier. Its output (10 Volts) controlled the Y-axis of an XY-writer, whose X-axis was controlled by a special time base. A 10-turn potentiometer with diode smoothing of the straight-line segments was driven by a phonograph motor. I calculated the X-axis position (time base) to occur at each PHI grain size with a Shape Factor of 0.65 in a settling time of quartz in water under usual laboratory conditions (temperature and gravity acceleration). I had to use the currently available experimental data, which were discontinuous and very poor. 

TI-51This is why I started collecting the world best measured data (from Fort Collins Hydraulic Laboratory, Colorado, and St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory, Minnesota) and assembled them into my Universal Sedimentation Equation (Brezina, 1979). I calculated the equation parameters by thousands partial reqressions on the first programmable hand-held calculator, Ti-51.

Soon (1973) I replaced the damping steel-leaf springs with a cylindrical spring wound from a 1.2 cm thick steel-wire around a 24 cm diameter cylinder. It was a space saving solution, but the producer soon refused the winding up of the thick steel wire as a life-dangerous job. Therefore, I decided to take pneumatic shock absorbers designed by Karl Spanner and produced by his company PI, Physik Instrumente, 76337 Waldbronn, now Karlsruhe, Germany. 

varian620The most important improvement was the introduction of minicomputers. Though all professionals recommended the 12-bit ones, I never took any of them — I prefered the precise 16-bit ones only. The first model was the VARIAN 620 (photo on the left) 16 kB; with the Teletype + 8-channel paper punch tape, later the 16 kB CAI's (Computer Automation Inc.) LSI-2, and then the 16 kB DEC's (Digital Equipment Corp.) LSI-11; AGIP SpA took their own HP 2100. The minicomputers involved the binary number operation in display electronics (no decimal numbers). The high price made monitors beyond my possibilities: instead, I usedTeletype with its 8-bit resolution, 132 characters/line, and low printing speed. With the appearance of Personal Computers, I used ELTEC computer with floppy disk and monitor, finally MS-DOS. We provided our GRM + SedVar Software on floppy disk to run on the user's PC. 

During the IAS (International Association of Sedimentologists) Congress in Nice, France, clark isobelin the year 1977, I met Isobel (photo on the right) and Malcolm Clarks, who developed a unique stable digital solution for decomposition of mixed distributions  (program ROKE). They both helped me to built it into my program SHAPE, which includes also my method of matching PSI to PHI sieve distributions of the same sample and calculating SF (shape factor) values from each PSI — PHI couple. I am using my SHAPE program until now: it presents my fundamental interpretation of PSI distributions inspired by Joe Curray's graphical solution.. 

In the period 1972 - 2000, I produced my Sand Sedimentation Analyzer™ (MacroGranometer™) and delivered to the following users

  1. Dr. K.-W. Tietze, Geological Institute, University of Marburg, Germany analyzer agip c 05
  2. Prof. Gerhard Einsele, Geological Institut, University of Tübingen, Germany
  3. Dr. Antonio Rizzini, Geological Laboratory, AGIP S.p.A., San Donato Milanese, Italy (photo on the right)  
  4. Prof. H. W. Partensky + Ing. Igor Kazanskij, Franzius Institut, Technical University of Hannover, Germany 
  5. Dr. Herrmann-Rudolf Kudrass, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe; Hannover, Germany
  6. Prof. Wilhelm Bechteler, Hochschule der Bundeswehr, Neubiberg near München, Germany
  7. Dr.-Ing. Wulf Alex, Dr.-Ing. R. Weichert; Institute für Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik, University Karlsruhe, Germany   
  8. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Kurt Leschonski, Institut für Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik, University Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany
  9. Prof. Dr. Jörg Stiefel, Geological Institute, Technical University Berlin, Germany  
  10. Prof. Dr. Jörn Thiede, GEOMAR, Geological-Paleontological Institute, University Kiel, Germany  
  11. Dr. Burghard W. Flemming, CSIR/NRIO Marine GeoSci Division, Stellenbosch, South Africa   faro
  12. Prof. Dr. L. Yapaudjian, SNEAP Elf Aquitaine, Laboratory de geol. de Boussens, France 
  13. Prof. Burghard W. Flemming,  Senckenberg Institut, Wilhelmshaven, Germany
  14. Dr. Andonaq K. Bicolli, Institute of Petroleum Research, Fieri, Albania 
  15. Dr. Gerhard Kuhn, Alfred-Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany 
  16. Prof. Dr. Giorgio Fontolan, Institute di Geologia, University Trieste, Italy 
  17. Dr. Jesper Bartholdi, Geographic Institute, University Copenhaven, Denmark 
  18. Prof. Dr. Peter Faupl, Prof. Michael Wagreich, Geological Institute, University Vienna, Austria 
  19. Dr. Elzbieta Zawadzka, Dr. Wojciech Wicher, Marine Institute, Gdansk, Poland 
  20. Prof. Joäo M. Alveirinho Dias, Oceanographic Institute, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, Faro, Portugal (photo on the right) 

In the years 1987 - 1988, I developed my Sand Sedimentation Separator™ and delivered it to: 

  1. Prof. Dr. Jörn Thiede (photo on the right),THIEDE c GEOMAR, Geolological-Paleontological Institute, University Kiel, Germany. 

The Separator™ presents the world new solution of quantitative separation of sand particles during their sedimentation. The separating unit enables flushing of each fraction of grains out of the settling tube. After this action, each fraction is available dry. The separation is programmable with the resolution of 0.01 PSI, the fraction width is limited by the minimum settling time difference of 3.5 seconds. When applied to equal sized material (for example, narrow sieve fraction), the settling time difference corresponds to grain density difference: thus, this method presents a density grain separation without heavy liquids, which are mostly toxic. Moreover, sedimentation of the narrow sieve fractions can separate microfossils, because of their porosity and shape features: these grains sediment much slower than the same sized solid grains of calcite, feldspar or quartz (the same mineral density). The Separator™ isolates heavy minerals much more precisely than heavy liquids, which, as electrical insulators, support particle electrostatic clustering and do not separate continuously as the Separator™. Heavy liquids can not isolate porous (micro)fossils - that capability is unique to the Separator™ only. R. OEHMIG (1993) used just this Separator™'s capability of isolating planktonic foraminifera. He showed that their bulk density decreases with grain size (his Fig. 2, p. 872).